What Are Bacteria?
Bacteria are single-cell organisms without a defined nucleus (prokaryote), but with their DNA held in a nucleoid in contact with the cellular liquid. They contain enzymes that carry out functions essential to the cell's metabolism and life. They also have elements for movement in different environments, like pili and flagella. Bacteria reproduce by splitting their cell into two identical cells.
Bacteria are differentiated by their shape, by the temperature at which they can live and reproduce and by their type of interaction with other organisms. Concerning this interaction, we have commensal bacteria, which are neutral or beneficial to the body, and pathogenic bacteria, which can cause disease and infection.
And Probiotic Bacteria?
Probiotics are commensal bacteria. They are living microorganisms found naturally in certain fermented food products which, if eaten in sufficient quantities, can be good for our health. They maintain a correct balance of bacteria inside the human gastrointestinal tract. The most common types of probiotic bacteria are forms of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus thermophilus.
The potential benefits that certain specific strains of these probiotics bring to human health are linked the reduction of the incidence or severity of gastrointestinal infections like Crohn's disease, the improvement of natural defenses against bacteria that cause gastritis and diarrhea and a general improvement of intestinal functions.
In order to enjoy these positive effects, it is necessary to regularly consume live probiotic bacteria, as they remain only temporarily in our intestines without ever becoming permanent residents.